Operant conditioning, also known as Skinnerian or instrumental conditioning, is a type of learning in which an individual’s behavior is modified by the consequence it brings. This can be through rewards and punishments administered after certain behaviors are performed. When discussing operant conditioning, there are two main categories: reinforcement and punishment (Zachry & Dopp, 2018). Reinforcement is defined as any stimulus that increases the probability of a behavior while punishment decreases it (Wasserman & Miller, 2016). The goal of both reinforcement and punishment is to modify behavior so that desired behaviors increase while undesired ones decrease.
Reinforcement comes in two forms: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement involves providing something desirable after a desired action has been taken in order to increase its probability of happening again (Langton et al., 2013). Examples of positive reinforcements include praise, money rewards or treats for pets being trained. Negative reinforcement occurs when an undesirable stimulus is removed following an action taken by someone in order to encourage them to repeat this same action. An example would be taking away homework from a student if they perform well on their tests leading them to associate doing well with not having homework (Amabile-Cuevas & Maldonado-Molina, 2017).
Identify negative and positive reinforcements and punishments, label the schedule of reinforcement or punishment in address operant conditioning
Punishment also follows two forms: positive and negative. Positive punishment involves adding something unpleasant after a person behaves inappropriately in order to reduce its repetition or future occurrence (Kazdin & Bootzin, 2004). Examples could include spanking for hitting siblings or extra chores for coming home late without permission from parents. On the other hand, negative punishment occurs when something pleasant or desirable is removed following undesired actions thereby making that behavior less likely next time around (McLeod (2018a)). For example taking away phone privileges when one neglects his/her duties such as cleaning up their room would be considered negative punishement because they will learn not do this behaviour because they know they will lose their phone privileges if they do it again..
When addressing operant conditioning either through reinforcement or punishment specific schedules must often be followed which govern how often these stimuli should be applied so as not to become ineffective overtime due rising habituation rates among individuals receiving them over long periods of time (Baer et al., 1968) These schedules can range from fixed ratio schedules where reward only happen following completion of specified number tasks; variable ratio schedule where rewarding happens intermittently at unpredictable intervals; fixed interval schedule which requires participants complete specified task within set amount before being rewarded; lastly variable interva schedule which involve predetermined periods between start times but indefinite intervals between termination times before rewarding participant upon satisfactory completion.(Jenkins & Moore),2016)
In conclusion operant conditioning provides us with effective means controlling behaviours through use reinforcements such rewards positive /negative reinforcementsand punishments likepositive/negative punishments all under specific schedules reinforcemnet ratio scheuldes ,variable ratioschedueles ,fixed interval schudule ,variable interval schdule . Indeed operant conditiong serves us with powerful tools understanding why people behave way thay do as welteachindem newbehaviour .