The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. According to the DSM, substance use disorder (SUD) is defined as a problematic pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. The criteria for diagnosing SUD are divided into 11 distinct categories: impaired control over substance use; social impairment due to substance use; risky usage patterns; pharmacological criteria; tolerance; withdrawal symptoms or relief from negative affect; failed efforts to quit or reduce usage; excessive time spent obtaining substances and/or using them; neglecting activities in favor of substance use; continued usage despite knowledge of harm associated with it, and craving for the drug. These categories cover a wide range of behavior related to addictive substances including alcohol, recreational drugs such as cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, opioids and more (American Psychiatric Association et al., 2013).
Impaired Control Over Substance Use refers to an individual’s inability to regulate their own behavior when it comes to using substances. This could include taking substances in larger amounts than desired or over longer periods than intended as well as persistence in using even when they recognize that this behavior has caused interpersonal problems at home or work (American Psychiatric Association et al., 2013). Social Impairment due to Substance Use refers specifically to difficulty functioning socially because one’s intake has interfered with their ability make meaningful connections with those around them including things like not being able to keep up relationships with family members or friends because they are too busy drinking (Kennedy & Shochet 2016). Risky Usage Patterns refer directly behaviors that put oneself at risk such as driving while under the influence which puts both oneself and others at great risk for injury if not death(Degenhardt & Hall 2015).
Generate a general overview of the substance use disorder criteria according to the DSM
Pharmacological Criteria relates both physical dependence on a particular drug affecting metabolism etc..and psychological dependence upon it where an individual relies heavily upon a certain type of drug for emotional regulation ((Litt 2009)). Tolerance can be defined as needing more and more over time before feeling effects which indicate changes in biochemistry have occurred due physiological adaptation within body systems(Weiss & Rice 1997)). Withdrawal Symptoms occur when an individual abruptly stops taking a specific kind of drug after having been dependent on it- this can cause intense physical reactions ranging from nausea vomiting headaches insomnia etc…(Cicero 2005) Relief From Negative Affect occurs when an individual seeks out certain kinds drugs specifically get rid off stress depression fear anger anxiety etc… Failed Efforts To Quit Or Reduce Usage means someone repeatedly tries unsuccessfully stop themselves from engaging without any real success((Kennedy 2004)).
Excessive Time Spent Obtaining Substances And/Or Using Them reflects how much one preoccupies themselves with trying obtain getting high instead focusing on other activities((Budney 2006)) Neglecting Activities In Favor Of Substance Use indicates how much importance one places upon obtaining drugs versus going school working engaging hobbies etc…Continued Usage Despite Knowledge Of Harm Associated With It points out that individuals persistently take drugs even though aware potentially life threatening risks involved doing so((Clark 2007)) Finally Cravings For The Drug also known ‘drug hunger’ suggests feelings intense desire need consume particular type medication whether there actually physiological reasons why not(Friedman 1993).
In conclusion all these various aspects come together form DSM criteria SUD diagnosis indicating problematic levels consumption among affected individuals often leading decreased quality life disrupted relationships economic difficulties legal troubles medical issues etc.(“Diagnosis overview – Substance Use Disorders”, n.d.).