Stress is a normal psychological and physiological response to everyday life. It can be beneficial when it helps us respond quickly to challenging situations, but too much stress can have damaging effects on our physical health. One of the primary hormonal mediators of the body’s stress response is cortisol, which is released in large amounts during times of extreme stress. This hormone has numerous effects throughout the body that can contribute to disease over time if left unchecked.
The primary role of cortisol is to increase blood sugar levels in order for energy production during stressful periods. This reaction helps prepare the body for fight or flight scenarios by providing an immediate source of fuel for muscles and other organs that need it most. Cortisol also suppresses non-essential functions like digestion and immune responses while increasing heart rate and respiration rate due to its vasoconstrictive properties. Furthermore, cortisol increases fat mobilization so that fatty acids are available as a fuel source during times of high activity or prolonged stress episodes.
Long-term exposure to increased levels of cortisol puts strain on multiple organs in the body such as the cardiovascular system, digestive system, reproductive system, kidneys, skin and even bones. For example, elevated cortisol causes constriction of blood vessels leading to higher blood pressure; this effect along with other factors from prolonged periods of heightened alertness caused by intense bouts of stress contributes significantly towards atherosclerosis development which ultimately leads to stroke or heart failure if not intervened properly upon diagnosis .
Stress and Disease: Describe the physiologic effects on body systems of increased cortisol levels released during the stress response
Impaired function in digestive organs like stomach and intestines due to lack stimulation from sympathetic nervous systems reduces their ability absorb nutrients further contributing towards weight loss or gain depending on individual habits; additionally depression an anxiety may lead towards habitual overeating leading obesity yet another problem associated with sustained high levels corticosteroids secretion . Likewise excessive release adrenal hormones decreases libido both men women disrupting reproductive cycles causing infertility certain cases . Similarly constant activation Renin angiotensin – Aldosterone axis disrupts electrolyte balance kidney damage long run predisposing diabetic nephropathy eventually end stage renal failure majority cases requiring dialysis treatment group patients afflicted chronic diseases dealing persistent hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysregulation .
Finally long term exposure cortisol affects both integumentary (skin) skeletal systems adversely; regarding former individuals affected show thinning hair hyperpigmentation delayed wound healing whereas latter results osteopenia osteoporosis potentially leading fractures vertebral column hips arms different parts organisms compromised structural integrity skeleton caused inadequate mineralization density bone mass overtime thereby decreasing resistance mechanical forces acting inner components studied species .
Thus excess adrenaline secretion caused chronic states distress prove detrimental various components physiology greatly impairing quality life adversely affecting person’s overall wellbeing thus making quite essential effective management counteracting deleterious actions induced corticosteroids secreted abnormal circumstances listed above order protect humanity against hazardous consequences those stated before seeking medical attention needed guaranteed positive outcomes concerning topics discussed hereinbefore presented paper aimed providing basic knowledge mechanisms regulating respective organ systems analyzing disturbances provoked artificial stimulation particular glands involved process conditions arising out consistently taking precautions periodical screening follow ups specialist care treatments determine changes occurring inside bodies given therapy applied purpose rescuing population dangerous illnesses course afflicting them significant numbers nowadays avoid exacerbating already existing issues mankind facing today