The stability of intelligence and personality across adulthood and into old age has been a topic of discussion for many decades. While the argument often focuses on whether or not these attributes remain stable, research suggests they do to some degree. Intelligence is considered to be relatively stable and unchangeable; however, it can improve with experience and learning (Hultsch et al., 1999). Personality also appears to remain relatively stable over time. A study completed by Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006) found that traits such as Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were moderately consistent from ages 18-68. The results concluded that personality does become more mature over time but remains very much the same throughout adulthood into old age.
One factor which may influence individual change in both intelligence and personality across life stages are environmental influences. Studies have shown that an individual’s environment during any stage of their life has a significant impact on their development (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 1998). This includes education levels achieved during childhood as well as activities undertaken in adulthood such as employment or volunteerism. Although we cannot control all aspects of our environment, certain experiences can be chosen at various stages in order to increase intellectual ability or enhance emotional intelligence in adulthood or old age respectively(Keller & Price-Mitchell 2014).
Whilst environmental factors can play an important part in shaping one’s abilities throughout life stages there are other influential components which must also be taken into account when discussing the stability of intelligence or personality across adulthood and into old age . Age related physiological changes may affect cognitive functioning due to decreased blood flow to the brain , reduced neural connections within regions associated with memory recall (Boelen et al., 2010), deteriorating vision acuity , altered sleep patterns caused by chronic illnesses among elderly people As well as general physical decline common amongst this group (Lövdén et al., 2012) All these biological influences have been known to take effect as early as 50 years of age , in terms of diminishing mental processes yet still allowing some capacity for growth through new experiences even at advanced ages .
Are intelligence and personality stable across adulthood and into old age
With regards to determining whether someone is intelligent or not – this is usually assessed via IQ tests . Generally speaking IQ scores tend towards remaining constant between adolescence until late middle -age although with any test discrepancies should always be expected due to persons taking different versions at varying times throughout their lives . It should however be noted that increased knowledge gathered over time will result in higher scores for those willing to engage themselves intellectually after reaching adult hood . Similarly most assessments used when measuring personalities such as surveys will produce consist results when done regularly from young adult hood onwards showing similar amounts stability when compared against each other(Roberts et al., 2006).
In conclusion both intelligence and personality appear mostly stable across upper adult hood into later years providing there are no major shifts experienced owing events outside one’s normal realm such extreme stressors etc As previously stated certain changes may occur depending on individual engagement with activities designed specifically enhance either area but generally speaking these attributes stay fairly consistent until quite advanced ages regardless off external stimuli provided one’s physiological state permits them too carry out tasks adequately while making use available resources normally afforded them